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Assignment Introduction & Background
Quality Teacher Profile Research
Effective Teacher Qualities & Characteristics
Okay guys, below are qualities/characteristics identified through research. I think we could bae our QTPI on research mainly by Lowman, Lipka/Bonthaupt and Feldman - just a thought! But the research does sometimes contradict different skills.
Sternberg & Horvath (1995):
Experts differ from non-experts in three basic domains
of teacher behaviour and activity:
There is no specific set of teaching behaviours that are clearly related to teacher effectiveness and not all effective behaviours can be applied to all situations
(Brophy 1992; Leinhart 1992)
but there are certain 'patterns' of behaviours that we can look at to distinguish effective teachers from ineffective
Lipka & Binthaupt (1999)
Behaviours/qualities can be grouped into four categories.
1. Personal characteristics
2. Intellectual characteristics
3. Interaction Styles
4. Instructional Appropriateness.
Top-ranking personality traits:
1. Cooperative, democratic attitude
2. Kindliness and consideration for the individual
4. Broad Interests
5. Pleasant personal appearance and manner
6. Fairness and impartiality
7. Sense of humour
8. Pleasant disposition and consistent behaviour
9. Interest in students' problems
Support of findings -
Murray 1983, Soar & Soar 1979, Sparks & Lipka 1992)
- 'warmth friendliness and understanding are teachers' persaonl characteristics most strongly related to positive student attributes.'
Gillet & Gall (1982)
eachers enthusiasm make positive diference to students' learning and
Mastin 1963, Rosenshine & Furst 1973
evidence suggesting teacher ethusiasm leads to higher student achievement and more favourable response to material by students.
Proactive teachers - essentially positive, flexible, democratic, capable of setting reasonable goals for the class as a whole and for individual students,
positive mindset about what is possible for students to accomplish, proactively plan their teaching-learning activities to minimise students not achieving.
Davis & Thomas (1989); Wright & Nuthall (1970)
- thoroughly and carefully prepared.
Bishop (1976); Milgram (1979)
- students valued intellectual preparedness of teachers more highly than teacher creativity and personality.
Teacher clarity - Consistent findings that teachers who are organised, give clear presentations and explanations.
Leinhardt & Greeno (1986)
- better organised and clearly integrated lesson plan. Effective lesson plans should have an inherent superior organisational structure and should include:
- global, content nonspecific planning components
- local, content specific planning components - clarity and breadth (explanations to specific qs by students)
- decision elements that are flexible and can respond to expected and unexpected events
This enables an effective teacher to relate student lesson objectives to the lesson, keeping goals on track,
Greater complexity = greater clarity and systematic presentation.
- more skilled at giving explanatory directions at the beginning on an instructional sequence.
- skill in giving verbal signals that indicate transitions from one topic to another
(Lipka & Binthaupt,1999)
- a command of centent area(s)
- propensity for organising and preparing carefully (bahviours that reflect high value placed on academic achievement and learning)
- willingness to spend time preparing students for new learning
- requires planning and foresight
Porter & Brophy (1987)
- they take time for relection and self-evaluation
- they monitor their instruction to ensure subject matter is meaningful and worthwhile
- they accept responsibility for guiding sudent learning and behviour
Skilled at giving feedback specific to a task and personalised to the student - can be praise or instructional which students can apply directly to themselves.
Good & Brophy (1994)
effective teachers give feedback that is:
1. Tailored to paticular students (rather than delivered to the entire class)
2. Given in a straightforward, declarative sentence
3. Given when someone really needs.... (I need to find the rest of this chapter so my have to refine this)
the most variation in individual q's come from underlying dimensions of:
1. how clear
and interesting were the teachers classes?
2. how positive and motivating were the teachers in dealing with the students?
Model: Effective teachers excel on at least one of two dimensions
1. ability to generate intellectual excitement in students
2. ability to generate interpersonal rapport in students
- solid command of the classroom as a dramatic arena - ability to speak energetically, use gestures and movement = highly enagaging. Demonstrated high creativity and an integratice intellectual perspective when presenting ocntent or designing assignments. Net effect = students found class highly interesting and intellectually stimulating.
Interpersonal Rapport -
student and teacher interactions as persons. verbal and nonverbal. strong positive attitudes toward students as people, they learned and used students' names; encouraged interaction before, during, after and out of class, appeared to be generally warm and positive individuals, use democratic over autcratic methods of controlling students, assignments made to emphasise students' desire to learn and to complete work enthusiastically and offered students choices on how to meet expectations.
Generated a list of
39 unique descriptors
Dimension 1: Intellectual Excitement:
Dimension 2A: Interpersonal Concern
Dimension 2B: Effective Motivation
Commitment to Teaching
General Positive Descriptors
Research identified that the following characteristics are of:
2. Course organisation
3. Teacher clarity and understandableness
4. Teachers stimulation of students' interest
5. Student-percieved outcome of impact
1. Teachers elocutionary skill
2. Clarity of course objectives and requirements
3. Teacher's knowledge of subject and enthusiasm
1. Nature, quality and frequency of feedback to students
2. Nature and value of course material
3. Nature and usefulness of supplementary materials and teaching aids
Rogers (2007) discusses a number of micro and macro considerations regarding student behaviour management. On the macro-level a whole-school approach to discipline is a solid foundation for the micro-level of individual teacher behaviour management. Positive and planned language and timing when disciplining, giving students feedback, and praising are all desirable teacher characteristics.
Teachers MUST be Critically Reflective (Brookfield, 1995)
Teachers’ repertoires of best practices
Provide learner with clear tasks, goals, and requirement and inform them of progress made. A key skill in teaching is the ability to explain and describe things clearly
Encourage pupils to think, to make connections, to practise and reinforce, to learn from other learners and to feel that if they make mistakes they will not be ridiculed or treated negatively
Promote pupil participation through problem solving, questioning, discussion and “buzz group” activities
Treat all pupil questions seriously and do not intimidate or ridicule
Use regular informal assessment strategies including a range of types of questioning, observation and listening in
Understand that, since individuals learn at different rates and in different ways, we need to provide a variety of activities, tasks and pace of work, and monitor and evaluate children’s progress
Use breaks and activities to engage pupils’ thinking and interest
Turn to reading and research for fresh insights and relating these to their classroom and school
Work in a shared and collegial way with other staff
Demonstrate an empathy with pupil thinking, anticipate misconceptions and allow pupils to develop understanding in a variety of ways
Observe pupils in class for signs that they are failing to keep up, are bored, or are not understanding
Show flexibility in responding to pupil needs
Genuinely want pupils to learn, understand and develop critical thinking abilities, as well as master content or learn skills
Encourage pupils to take an active role in working through difficulties and take time to work through concepts in detail with those who have difficulties
Teachers who show enthusiasm for subject, professional area and teaching role motivate pupils as they look forward to coming to that class
Highly effective teachers are viewed as “easy going”, “relaxed”, with an “open” manner. This brings a relaxed atmosphere to the classroom
Are resourceful and positive and adopt a problem-solving approach
Are creative and imaginative and have an open attitude to change
Are systematic and well organised, focused, determined and hardworking
Demonstrate empathy and fairness, are caring and approachable
The Standard for Chartered Teachers states that the quality of the educational service depends pre-eminently on the quality of our teachers. The standard then list the following 4 components:
Professional values and personal commitments
Professional knowledge and understanding
Professional and personal attributes
It also lists 4 central professional values and personal commitments which effective teachers should develop:
effectiveness in promoting learning in the classroom
critical self-evaluation and development
collaboration and influence
educational and social values
Aspy D. & Roebuck F. (1977)
Kids Don’t Learn from People They Don’t Like,
Ameherst, Mass: Human Resource Development Press
Am I Teaching Well ?
Smith, A. & Call, N.(1999)
ALPS Approach Accelerated Learning in the Primary School
, Network Educational Press
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